Human Resources Management

Human Resources Management Part -2

Human Resources Management is the part of the organization that is concerned with the ‘people’ dimension. Human Resources Management deals with the human relations of an organization starting from recruitment to management. Any Organization is the most important part of Human Resources Management It is a process of acquisition, development, motivation, and maintenance of human resources of an organization.

Previously I discuss Human Resources Management in Bangladesh’s function of Human Resources Management and fundamentals of Human Resources Management in Bangladesh now I discuss this part -2 Job Analysis in Bangladesh.

Human Resources Management Part -2

Job Analysis is a systematic exploration of the activities within a job. It is a technical procedure used to define the duties, responsibilities, and accountabilities of a job. This analysis “involves the identification & description of what is happening on the job …. accurately and precisely identifying the required tasks, the knowledge and the skills necessary for performing them and the conditions under which they must be performed.

In other words, we can say that a job analysis indicates what activities and accountabilities the job entails. There is no mystery to a job analysis; it is just an accurate recording of the activities involved.

Human Resources Management Part -2

In recording these activities, we are simply gathering information and while every job is multifaceted, we must confine our information gathering to specific job attributes. We begin with the smallest segment of information, which we call an element. A job element is the smallest unit into which work can be divided. Putting the tomato on a hamburger is an example of an element in the job of a fry cook at McDonald’s.  Human Resources Management.

Human Resources Management Part -2

Human Resources Management:

Elements: Elements are the factor or components to be selected for analyzing jobs.

Task: A task is a distinct work activity carried out for a distinct purpose. Examples would include typing a letter, preparing a lecture, or unloading a mail truck.

Duty: A duty is a number of tasks. Counseling students is a duty of a college instructor. A general accounting clerk’s duties might include preparing the monthly income statement and distributing the weekly payroll checks.

Position: A position refers to one or more duties performed by one person in an organization. There are at least as many positions as there are workers in the organization; vacancies may create more positions than employees. Examples of positions include Supervisor – Grade IV; Accounts payable clerk I; and Assistant professor, Level 2

Job: A job is a type of position within the organization. If a large insurance company employs sixty life insurance actuary jobs.

Job family: A job family is a group of two or more jobs that either call for similar worker characteristics or contain parallel work tasks as determined by the job analysis. At the previously mentioned insurance company, service clerks and policy correspondents represent two jobs that frequently are placed in a common job family because they have many similar worker characteristics.

Occupation:  An occupation is a group of similar jobs found across the organization. Electricians, accountants, and service maintenance engineers are examples of occupations.

Career: A career represents a sequence of positions, jobs, or occupations that a person has over his or her working life.

Why is it important to know the terms defined above? As we will show, job analysis begins at the level of the element and attempts to build an understanding of jobs, occupations, and careers as components combined. In other words, the previous definitions should help you to see how jobs evolve and develop.

Armed with this conceptual framework, let us now look at how to conduct the job analysis. The next section will explore the more widely used job analysis techniques. Human Resources Management.

Human Resources Management Part -2

Objectives of Job Analysis:

  1. Recruitment & Selection
  2. Organization & Co-operation
  3. Training
  4. Transfer & Promotion
  5. Compensation
  6. Preventing & Misunderstanding
  7. Improving Working Conditions

Human Resources Management:

Methods of Job Analysis:

The basic methods that HRM can use to determine job elements and the essential knowledge, skills, and abilities for successful performance include the following:

Human Resources Management Part -2

Observation Method: Using the observation method, a job analysis watches employees directly or reviews films of workers on the job. Although the observation method provides firsthand information, workers often do not function most efficiently when they are being watched, and thus distortions in the job analysis can occur. This method also requires that the entire range of activities be observable. This is possible with some jobs, but impossible for many-for example, most managerial jobs.

Individual Interview Method: Using the individual method, a team of job incumbents is selected and extensively interviewed. The results of these interviews are combined into a single job analysis. This method is effective for assessing what a job entitles and involving employees in the job analysis is essential.

Group Interview Method: The group interview method is similar to the individual interview method except that a number of job incumbents are interviewed simultaneously. Accuracy is increased in assessing jobs, but group dynamics may hinder its effectiveness.

Structured Questionnaire Method: Under the structured questionnaire method, workers are sent a specifically designed questionnaire on which they check or rate items they perform on their job from a long list of possible task items. This technique is excellent for gathering information about jobs. However, exceptions to a job may be overlooked, and there is often no opportunity to ask follow-up questions or to clarify the information received. Job Analysis is a good method.

Technical Conference Method: The technical conference method uses supervisors with extensive knowledge of the job. Here, specific job characteristics are obtained from the  “experts” Although a good data-gathering method, often overlooks the incumbent workers’ perceptions about what they do on their job.

Human Resources Management

Human Resources Management Part -2

Diary Method: The diary method requires job incumbents to record their daily activities. The diary method is the most time-consuming of the job analysis methods and may have to extend over long periods of time-all adding to its cost.

These six methods are not meant to be viewed as mutually exclusive; no one method is university superior. Even obtaining job information from the incumbents can create a problem, especially if these individuals describe what they think they should be doing rather than what they actually do. The best results, then, are usually achieved with some combination of methods-with information provided by individual employees, their immediate supervisors, a professional analysis, or an unobtrusive source such as filmed observations. In the next section, we’ll explore a means of conducting the job analysis.

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